lunes, 20 de abril de 2009

¿Por qué salen ojos rojos en las fotos?

En algún momento, todos hemos visto este efecto. Cuando estamos tomando fotografías de noche, las personas salen con ojos color rojo intenso. Por qué sucede este efecto de "ojo rojo" en las fotografías, y cómo podemos evitar o minimizarlo?

Este efecto de ojo rojo sucede debido a lo siguiente: En un ambiente nocturno o cerrado, sin luz diurna, la luz ambiental

my cat, snowball, with a very bad case of rede...Image via Wikipedia

usualmente es poca. Esto causa que la pupila del ojo humano automáticamente se dilate, permitiendo dejar entrar más luz para poder ver mejor. Sin embargo, una cámara en estas condiciones deberá utilizar un flash intenso para poder tomar una fotografía. Entonces, en el momento en el que dispara el flash, la pupila está abierta casi por completo, acostumbrada a la poca luz ambiental, y la luz del flash se refleja en la retina del ojo. Es este reflejo lo que queda capturado en la imagen. Ahora, por qué el reflejo es rojo? La retina del ojo está llena de vasos sanguíneos, así que ese es el color rojo que vemos: el color de nuestra propia sangre.
Este efecto es mucho más marcado en personas con ojos azules o grises, ya que el iris de sus ojos tiene menos melamina, y permiten pasar más luz a la parte posterior del ojo. En la mayoría de animales también se puede observar este efecto, pero en los animales con buena visión nocturna, el ojo no sale color rojo, sino blanco, azul o verde, dependiendo de la especie. Esto se debe a que estos animales tienen una capa altamente reflectiva en la parte posterior del ojo, llamada tapetum lucidum, el cual les sirve para poder ver en poca luz. Entonces, al tomarles una foto, el reflejo no es de la retina sino de esta capa.

Ahora, cómo podemos hacer para minimizar este efecto en las fotografías? Varias cámaras traen mecanismos automáticos que minimizan el efecto, disparando un flash de "preparación" un segundo antes de tomar la foto real, para que la pupila esté más cerrada en ese momento. Un truco que puede utilizarse es aumentar la luz ambiental en el cuarto o área, ya que esto también causará que la pupila se cierre. Si su cámara es de tipo dSLR con un flash removible, puede apuntar el flash hacia el techo o a una pared, y rebotar la luz, o simplemente alejar el flash de la cámara. Cualquiera de estas opciones reducirá o eliminará el efecto del ojo rojo en la mayoría de situaciones.

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